China's creation of the most exiled nuclear power

2022-07-31
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Nuclear power: the exiled "made in China"

in fact, in the past years, the development of nuclear power in China was far from plain sailing, and even full of twists and turns. From the earliest time, whether to develop nuclear power and where to develop nuclear power have been constantly debated and wavering; Later, the management leadership, technical route and development speed of nuclear power development have been repeated several times. Finally, it led to the passive situation of early start, slow progress and large gap in China's nuclear power

China is a world brand

the technical routes were determined through full discussion and comparison. This is a collective decision. When Comrade Zeng Peiyan was in office, the technical line was very clear: the second generation plus (i.e. the improved second generation nuclear power technology) is a transition, and we will go to the third generation nuclear power in the future, which is also our original intention to introduce the third generation nuclear power technology. On this basis, we have digested and absorbed the technology and developed our own intellectual property rights. When reviewing the process of introducing the third generation nuclear power technology, zhangguobao revealed that at the beginning, everyone had different backgrounds and ideas. Some people advocate the introduction of American AP1000, while others advocate the introduction of French AP1000. However, there is a consensus: China is a world-class brand, and has introduced reactor types from several countries. Each power station is different. This development will certainly not work. We must unify technology. However, there are differences on which side to unite. Ultimately, we should have our own understanding of nuclear power technology

because of different understandings, we gathered more than 60 experts in the field of nuclear power in the suburbs of Beijing. We closed the door and were not allowed to go home or fight. We discussed it there for about a week. At last, everyone should vote by open ballot and write down their opinions in favor of or against it. As a result, more than 90% of the people advocated the introduction of AP1000, and all of them left written records. After the experts' opinions are unified, they shall be reported to the State Council, and then the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee shall be convened for discussion. At that time, the Ministry of foreign affairs also participated, and the opinions of the Ministry of foreign affairs were divided into two groups: those in the United States and those in France. Finally, considering the whole review process and opinions from all sides, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau discussed and agreed to introduce AP1000. Zhangguobao recalled

however, can the introduction of AP1000 unify the technical route? Now it seems that China's nuclear power technology route has not been unified as originally hoped

zhangguobao admits that he has not achieved the expected goal, and that he is still acting in his own way and has not been straightened out yet. Whether the future can be unified depends on whether the leaders are strong. If the leaders are not strong enough, there will be no reunification at all

Professor Lu Feng and his team from the school of government and management of Peking University conducted in-depth investigation and Research on China's nuclear power industry, which has gone through three rounds of introduction in 30 years, trying to break this strange circle in China's nuclear power industry

marked by Daya Bay nuclear power station, China's nuclear power established the line of "Introduction + localization" in the first round of development in the 1980s, but there is also independent development marked by Qinshan nuclear power station (phase I). In the 1990s, China experienced the second round of introduction for the purpose of purely purchasing capacitors (excluding technology transfer), successively purchased Canada's heavy water reactor (Qinshan Phase III) and Russia's pressurized water reactor (Tianwan), and continued to purchase the French nuclear power plant (the follow-up project of Daya Bay, Ling'ao). At the same time, China also started the construction of the independently designed Qinshan Phase II nuclear power plant. Although independent development coexisted with introduction for 20 years, it was completely abandoned by the third round of introduction at the end of 2002. The third round of introduction confirmed the AP1000 third-generation nuclear power technology. When Westinghouse and Areva of France competed for the bidding of China's third-generation nuclear power unprecedentedly, the second-generation nuclear reactor technology independently developed by China and matured in the Qinshan nuclear power project became a spectator

the Westinghouse AP1000, which won the bid, once again made the Chinese feel helpless about the fishing project. Its investment ratio has changed from 1000-1500 US dollars per kilowatt at the time of Westinghouse lobbying to no ceiling, at least doubling; The defeated Areva EPR took the order of CGNPC. China Nuclear Power Research and Design Institute, which owns the intellectual property rights of nuclear power technology, is increasingly marginalized

the main reason put forward by the advocates of the third round of introduction route is that the diverse types of domestic nuclear power plants have seriously interfered with China's nuclear power technology progress and localization process, while the independently designed Qinshan Phase II nuclear power plant was built with reference to Daya Bay nuclear power plant, and there is a gap with the new international nuclear safety standards in terms of accident prevention, mitigation measures and fire protection design, It has lost its status as a major model

therefore, China's nuclear power must adopt advanced technology, unify the technical route, directly introduce the most advanced third-generation nuclear power plant technology from abroad, and take a new step forward. The specific implementation plan of this policy is: through international bidding, select one of the international three generation nuclear motor types as the development direction of China's nuclear power technology; Firstly, four units introduced through bidding shall be built as the supporting project of localization (later renamed as localization); Before 2010, the batch construction of such imported models will be started, and the target of 40million kW will be reached by 2020; In addition to the existing 11 units of 8.7 million kW in China, all of them are imported models. Domestic models that have mastered the technology but are backward will not be built

in September, 2004, the bidding work of China's third generation nuclear power plants (international bidding for the supply of nuclear islands of Zhejiang Sanmen and Guangdong Yangjiang nuclear power plants) officially began, marking the implementation of the third round of introduction route, but the bidding negotiation time was much longer than expected. In December2006, the bidding results were finally announced, and the AP1000 of Westinghouse became the final winner

the introduction route is full of flaws

in March2007, the National Nuclear Power Technology Corporation (Preparatory) and the Westinghouse consortium signed a framework contract for nuclear island procurement and technology transfer of the third generation nuclear power autonomous support project in Beijing, and built four AP1000 units in Sanmen, Zhejiang and Haiyang, Shandong (replacing Yangjiang). On July 24 of the same year, China nuclear technology and Westinghouse signed a technology import agreement in Beijing. Although the policy of achieving leaps and bounds in one step has begun to be put into practice, the bright prospect of China's nuclear power development has not emerged. The third round of introduction route has been flawed after only threeorfour years of implementation

first, the introduction route was intended to unify the technical route of China's nuclear power construction with AP1000, that is, to build nuclear power plants in batches by purchasing and copying such models. However, after the decision of overall introduction was made, the decision-makers of the introduction route found that since AP1000 is a model that has not been actually verified or even designed and finalized, it is impossible to carry out mass construction before the first batch of units are completed and proved to be able to operate safely. So in 2006, the decision-makers of the introduction route had to temporarily change their original intention, open the door to the so-called second-generation technology that they thought should be abandoned, and approved the launch of a series of second-generation improved nuclear power plants with domestic design, changing the one-step leap as the reason for the overall introduction into two-step in fact

second, the introduction route can not unify the technical route of China's nuclear power development, but can only embark on the road of the world brand again. One of the main policy objectives of the third round of introduction is to unify the technical route of cutting problems during installation. However, before the ink on the contract for purchasing Westinghouse AP1000 nuclear power plant was dry, China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group was approved to purchase French EPR nuclear power plant (both belong to the third generation technology) and withdraw from the scope of adopting AP1000

no one has explained the reason for the sudden change of mind. Taking the solid-liquid phase transition as an example, an explanation that outsiders can agree with is that the purchase of nuclear power plants involves the politics of major powers, and the purchase from multiple countries is to balance the interests between major powers. This explanation is not unreasonable, but if it is reasonable, it can only be established on the premise that China must purchase nuclear power plants from foreign countries. On the contrary, if China's nuclear power development takes the independent route, no major country will feel unbalanced

in fact, the diverse situation of domestic nuclear power plant models accused by the third round of introduction route is precisely the consequence of the first two rounds of introduction, and the third round of introduction can only further add to this diverse situation. The reneging on the introduction route has proved that China's nuclear power development will never unify the technical route as long as the introduction is made. Meanwhile, the simultaneous use of different models from France, Canada, Russia and the United States has also made China a wonderful flower in the history of nuclear power development in the world

third, the cost of introducing routes is unprecedented. The cost of overall introduction has always been a closely guarded topic and has been in a highly confidential state. With the implementation of specific projects, some information was gradually revealed irresistibly: Although the international bidding scheme was originally reported to the central government for approval at the price of US $1800 ~ 1900 per kilowatt, the National Nuclear Technology Corporation, which is responsible for the introduction, has now asked the owner to prepare to accept the offer at the price of more than US $2000 per kilowatt, with a worrying condition that it is not capped

in fact, due to the unpredictable technical risks of AP1000, the final actual cost is likely to be higher. Although accurate data need to be developed in the future, indirect evidence can still be found from the world nuclear power market by introducing costly judgments

according to the article "the third generation nuclear power is becoming more expensive" published by wenhongjun, director of the economic professional committee of China nuclear power society on October 20, 2008, in the United States, the budget of the specific investment (average investment per kilowatt) of the three AP1000 nuclear power plants is more than 4300 dollars; The specific investment budget of Finnish projects using French EPR technology has climbed to about $4200 due to several delays, and that of local projects in France is about $3500

compared with the expensive foreign third generation nuclear power plants, the Qinshan Phase II nuclear power plant independently designed by China is 1360 US dollars per kilowatt; That is to say, the cost for China to rely on the introduction of nuclear power will be at least three times that of independent construction. Therefore, the introduction of the route will seriously question the economy of China's development of nuclear power

fourth, the introduction route is difficult to introduce technology. The original idea of "purchasing" AP1000 technology is that the first four units will be built by Westinghouse negative technology, and then on the basis of Westinghouse transferred technology, several subsequent units will be independently designed (copied) by the Chinese side, and Westinghouse will be responsible for the technical control, and the batch construction will be carried out after the actual operation verification

the international experience and theory of technological innovation prove that the necessary condition for the introduction of technology is that the importer has considerable technology absorption capacity, which can only come from the experience and efforts of independent research and development. Therefore, only on the basis of our own R & D experience can we digest and absorb foreign technologies. Therefore, it is impossible for China to develop the technical capability of developing advanced reactors by re innovating the replication and power amplification under the AP1000 design framework. If there is reason to believe that a person who buys a bag of rice from a grain store does not mean that he will grow rice, then we have reason to believe that China's nuclear power can not achieve autonomy by relying on such independent support projects

in the face of such a development situation, people have to put forward

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